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让linux服务器支持https(安全http协议)

来源: 300second 分享至:

我们通常用“http://”这样的方式来访问网站,而此时传输的内容是可能被别人截获的,因为其内容是通过明文传输,所以在传递一些隐私、以及密码相关的信息时,就显得非常的不安全。在一些比较正式的网站、以及一些银行相关的网站中,一些需要提交隐私或者重要级别比较高的密码时,都采用“https://”的方式,来将传输内容加密,从而保证用户安全和避免隐私的泄漏。

今天在这里,我就通过mod_ssl来使我们的服务器也支持https。(环境:centos 5.5)

1、安装mod_ssl

通过yum来在线安装mod_ssl

[root@300second ~]# yum -y install mod_ssl      ← 在线安装mod_ssl

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
 * base: data.nicehosting.co.kr
 * extras: data.nicehosting.co.kr
 * updates: data.nicehosting.co.kr
addons                                                   |  951 B     00:00
addons/primary                                           |  202 B     00:00
http://data.nicehosting.co.kr/os/CentOS/5.7/os/i386/repodata/repomd.xml: [Errno 14] HTTP Error 403: Forbidden
Trying other mirror.
base                                                     | 1.1 kB     00:00
base/primary                                             | 961 kB     00:40
base                                                                  2705/2705
http://data.nicehosting.co.kr/os/CentOS/5.7/extras/i386/repodata/repomd.xml: [Errno 14] HTTP Error 403: Forbidden
Trying other mirror.
extras                                                   | 2.1 kB     00:00
extras/primary_db                                        | 156 kB     00:06
http://data.nicehosting.co.kr/os/CentOS/5.7/updates/i386/repodata/repomd.xml
: [Errno 14] HTTP Error 403: Forbidden
Trying other mirror.
updates                                                  | 1.9 kB     00:00
updates/primary_db                                       | 290 kB     00:12
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mod_ssl.i386 1:2.2.3-53.el5.centos.3 set to be updated
--> Processing Dependency: httpd = 2.2.3-53.el5.centos.3 for package: mod_ssl
--> Processing Dependency: libdistcache.so.1 for package: mod_ssl
--> Processing Dependency: libnal.so.1 for package: mod_ssl
--> Running transaction check
---> Package distcache.i386 0:1.4.5-14.1 set to be updated
---> Package httpd.i386 0:2.2.3-53.el5.centos.3 set to be updated
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

================================================================================
 Package         Arch       Version                         Repository     Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 mod_ssl         i386       1:2.2.3-53.el5.centos.3         updates        93 k
Installing for dependencies:
 distcache       i386       1.4.5-14.1                      base          119 k
Updating for dependencies:
 httpd           i386       2.2.3-53.el5.centos.3           updates       1.2 M

Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install       2 Package(s)
Upgrade       1 Package(s)

Total download size: 1.4 M
Downloading Packages:
(1/3): mod_ssl-2.2.3-53.el5.centos.3.i386.rpm            |  93 kB     00:03
(2/3): distcache-1.4.5-14.1.i386.rpm                     | 119 kB     00:05
(3/3): httpd-2.2.3-53.el5.centos.3.i386.rpm              | 1.2 MB     00:53
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                            23 kB/s | 1.4 MB     01:02
warning: rpmts_HdrFromFdno: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID e8562897
updates/gpgkey                                           | 1.5 kB     00:00
Importing GPG key 0xE8562897 "CentOS-5 Key (CentOS 5 Official Signing Key) <
centos-5-key@centos.org>" from /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Finished Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
  Installing     : distcache                                                1/4
  Updating       : httpd                                                    2/4
  Installing     : mod_ssl                                                  3/4
  Cleanup        : httpd                                                    4/4

Installed:
  mod_ssl.i386 1:2.2.3-53.el5.centos.3

Dependency Installed:
  distcache.i386 0:1.4.5-14.1

Dependency Updated:
  httpd.i386 0:2.2.3-53.el5.centos.3

Complete!

2、HTTP 服务器上配置mod_ssl

[1] 建立服务器密钥

[root@300second ~]#  cd /etc/pki/tls/certs/
  ← 进入HTTP服务器配置文件所在目录

[root@300second certs]#  
make server.key  ← 建立服务器密钥
umask 77 ; \
               /usr/bin/openssl genrsa -des3 1024 > server.key
Generating RSA private key, 1024 bit long modulus
................++++++
......++++++
e is 65537 (0x10001)
Enter pass phrase:           
           ← 在这里输入口令
Verifying - Enter pass phrase:   ← 确认口令,再次输入

[root@300second certs]#  openssl rsa -in server.key -out server.key  ← 从密钥中删除密码(以避免系统启动后被询问口令)

Enter pass phrase for server.key:  ← 输入口令
writing RSA key

[2] 建立服务器公钥

[root@300second certs]#  make server.csr  ← 建立服务器密钥

umask 77 ; \
                /usr/bin/openssl req -utf8 -new -key server.key -out server.csr
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.

-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [GB]:CN  ← 输入国名
State or Province Name (full name) [Berkshire]:Fujian  ← 输入省名
Locality Name (eg, city) [Newbury]:Quanzhou  ← 输入城市名
Organization Name (eg, company) [My Company Ltd]:www.51cto.com  ← 输入组织名(任意)
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:  ← 不输入,直接回车
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:www.51cto.com  ← 输入通称(任意)
Email Address []:300second@163.com   ← 输入电子邮箱地址 

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request

A challenge password []:  ← 不输入,直接回车
An optional company name []:   ← 不输入,直接回车

[3] 建立服务器证书

[root@300second certs]#  openssl x509 -in server.csr -out server.pem -req -signkey server.key -days 365  ← 建立服务器证书

Signature ok
subject=/C=CN/ST=Fujian/L=Quanzhou/O=www.51cto.com/CN=www.51cto.com/emailAddress=300second@163.com
Getting Private key

[root@300second certs]#  chmod 400 server.*    ← 修改权限为400


[4] 设置SSL

[root@300second certs]#  vi /etc/httpd/conf.d/ssl.conf  ← 修改SSL的设置文件

#DocumentRoot "/var/www/html"  ← 找到这一行,将行首的“#”去掉
 ↓
DocumentRoot "/var/www/html"  ← 变为此状态

[5] 重新启动HTTP服务,让SSL生效

[root@300second certs]#  /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart  ← 重新启动HTTP服务器 

停止  httpd:                [ 确定 ]
启动 httpd:              [ 确定
]

3、测试SSL

打开浏览器,在地址栏输入“https://服务器IP地址”或者“https://你的域名”后,如果出现提示安装服务器安全证书的窗口(如下所示),说明服务器已经支持SSL。


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